Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin
sixth Edition

Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin

by Peter Smith

Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin is part one of a two part series. This series examines the systematic principles by which a large portion of English vocabulary has evolved from Latin and (to a lesser degree) from Greek. This book focuses on Latin roots. A link to the second part focusing on the Greek roots can be found below. Part I will try to impart some skill in the recognition and proper use of words derived from Latin. There is a stress on principles: although students will be continually looking at interesting individual words, their constant aim will be to discover predictable general patterns of historical development, so that they may be able to cope with new and unfamiliar words of any type that they have studied

. They will be shown how to approach the problem by a procedure known as “word analysis,” which is roughly comparable to the dissection of an interesting specimen in the biology laboratory. The text assumes no previous knowledge of Latin, and does not involve the grammatical study of this language—except for a few basic features of noun and verb formation that will help students to understand the Latin legacy in English. Although there will be some attention paid to the historical interaction of Latin with English, this text is definitely not a systematic history of the English language. It focuses on only those elements within English that have been directly or indirectly affected by this classical language. In order to provide the broadest possible service to students, the text emphasizes standard English vocabulary in current use. The more exotic technical vocabulary of science and medicine can be extremely interesting, but is explored in only summary fashion. Nevertheless, this text should be of considerable value, say, to a would-be botanist or medical doctor, if only by providing the foundation for further specialized enquiry.

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Peter Smith. - Born in Victoria, Peter graduated high school with the highest marks in the province and took his undergraduate degrees at Victoria College and the University of British Columbia. Having won the Governor General’s Award he attended Yale University where he wrote his PhD focused on the Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric Ausonius. He then had a brief teaching year in Ottawa, but by the early 1960s Peter was home again and began his professional career as a teacher and administrator with the newly formed University of Victoria (UVic). In addition to his Classical scholarship, which focused on Latin lyric poetry and drama, Peter wrote a history of the university, A Multitude of the Wise: UVic Remembered (1994) reflecting on the many transformations he witnessed here as UVic became a world-renowned university. Peter had an exacting but jovial manner that students and colleagues can never forget. His demand for excellence impressed anyone who had the pleasure of knowing him.

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Cover image: Attic kylix by painter, Douris (ca. 480 BC). Photo by Egisto Sani. CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Generic license.

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Introduction. Front Matter
Introduction.1 - Preface to 5th Edition
Introduction.2 - Foreword
Chapter One. Introduction
1.1 - §1. The Fascination of Words
1.2 - §2. What is Greek and Latin Roots (GRS 250)
1.3 - §3. Why Latin and Greek?
1.4 - §4. The Indo-European Family of Languages
1.5 - §5. The Unique Nature of English
1.6 - §6. Dictionary Practice
1.7 - §7. Latin Pronunciation
Chapter Two. The Latin Noun (Declensions 1 & 2)
2.1 - §8. Form and Meaning
2.2 - §9. What is a Noun?
2.3 - §10. Latin Nouns of the First Declension
2.4 - §11. Interesting Words
2.5 - §12. Latin Nouns of the Second Declension
2.6 - §13. Interesting Words
2.7 - §14. Patterns of Change in Form
2.8 - §15. Patterns of Change in Meaning
2.9 - §16. The Legacy of Latin: I. Old English
2.10 - §17. Chapter 2: Exercises
Chapter Three. The Latin Noun (Declensions 3, 4, 5)
3.1 - §18. Latin Nouns of the Third Declension
3.2 - §19. Interesting Words
3.3 - §20. Latin Nouns of the Fourth Declension
3.4 - §21. Latin Nouns of the Fifth Declension
3.5 - §22. Summary of the Five Latin Noun Declensions
3.6 - §23. The Legacy of Latin: II. Middle English
3.7 - §24. Chapter 3: Exercises
Chapter Four. Simple Latin Adjectives
4.1 - §25. What is an Adjective?
4.2 - §26. Latin Adjectives: 1st and 2nd Declension Type
4.3 - §27. Latin Adjectives: 3rd Declension Type
4.4 - §28. Interesting Words
4.5 - §29. Comparative and Superlative Forms
4.6 - §30. Latin Adverbs
4.7 - §31. The Legacy of Latin: III. Modern English
4.8 - §32. Chapter 4: Exercises
Chapter Five. Turning Latin Nouns into Adjectives
5.1 - §33. The Process of Affixation
5.2 - §34. Adjective-forming Suffixes in English
5.3 - §35. The Latin suffix -ALIS (> E -al) / -ARIS (> E -ar or -ary)
5.4 - §36. The Latin suffix -ILIS (> E -ile or -il)
5.5 - §37. The Latin suffixes -ANUS (> E -an) and -INUS (> E -ine)
5.6 - §38. The Latin suffix -ARIUS (> E -ary, -arium, -er)
5.7 - §39. The Latin suffix -OSUS (> E -ous, -ose)
5.8 - §40. The Latin suffix -LENTUS (> E -lent)
5.9 - §41. Summary of Adjective-forming Suffixes
5.10 - §42. Interesting words
5.11 - §43. Word Analysis
5.12 - §44. Chapter 5: Exercises
Chapter Six. Turning Latin Adjectives into Latin Nouns
6.1 - §45. Noun-forming Suffixes in English
6.2 - §46. The Latin suffix -ITAS (> E -ity); variant -ETAS (> E -ety)
6.3 - §47. The Latin suffix -ITUDO (> E -itude)
6.4 - §48. The Latin suffix -ITIA (> E -ice)
6.5 - §49. Other Noun-forming Suffixes (-IA, -MONIUM)
6.6 - §50. Interesting Words
6.7 - §51. Chapter 6: Exercises
Chapter Seven. Latin Diminutives
7.1 - §52. What is a Diminutive?
7.2 - §53. The Regular Latin Diminutive Suffixes -ULUS and -CULUS
7.3 - §54. The Variant Latin Diminutive Suffixes -OLUS and -ELLUS
7.4 - §55. Diminutive Adjective Derivatives in -ARIS
7.5 - §56. Interesting Words
Chapter Eight. Latin Prefixes
8.1 - §57. An Introduction to Prefixes
8.2 - §58. Prefixes Denoting Place
8.3 - §59. A Summary of Latin Prefixes
8.4 - §60. Interesting Words
Chapter Nine. The Latin Verb System
9.1 - §61. What is a Verb?
9.2 - §62. The Two Keys to the Latin Verb
9.3 - §63. Latin Verbs of the First Conjugation
9.4 - §64. Latin Verbs of the Second Conjugation
9.5 - §65. Latin Verbs of the Third Conjugation
9.6 - §66. Latin Verbs of the Third I-STEM and Fourth Conjugations
9.7 - §67. Interesting Words
Chapter Ten. Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Nouns
10.1 - §68. How Can Verbs Become Other Parts of Speech?
10.2 - §69. The Perfect Participle as 2nd Declension Neuter Noun
10.3 - §70. The Perfect Participle as 4th Declension Noun
10.4 - §71. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -IO as Abstract Noun
10.5 - §72. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -URA as Abstract Noun
10.6 - §73. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -OR as Agent Noun
10.7 - §74. Other Noun-forming suffixes
10.8 - §75. Chapter 10: Exercises
Chapter Eleven. Turning Latin Nouns into Latin Verbs
11.1 - §76. What is a Denominative Verb?
11.2 - §77. Denominative Verbs in -ARE, -ATUS, and their nouns in -AT -IO
11.3 - §78. Interesting Words
11.4 - §79. Turning Diminutive Nouns into Verbs
Chapter Twelve. Latin Present Participles and Gerundives
12.1 - §80. How to Recognize a Present Participle (Latin -NT-)
12.2 - §81. Participial Abstract Nouns in -NTIA (> E -nce or -ncy)
12.3 - §82. English Derivatives from Latin Present Participles
12.4 - §83. Interesting Words
12.5 - §84. English Spelling Irregularities
12.6 - §85. The Latin Gerundive: the -ND- form
12.7 - §86. Chapter 12: Exercises
Chapter Thirteen. Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Adjectives
13.1 - §87. The Latin suffixes -BILIS (> E -ble) and -ILIS (> E -ile)
13.2 - §88. Adjectives from the Present Base (-AX, -UUS, -ULUS, -IDUS)
13.3 - §89. Adjectives from the Perfect Base (-ORIUS, -IVUS)
13.4 - §90. Interesting Words
Chapter Fourteen. Compound Words in Latin
14.1 - §91. What is a Compound Word?
14.2 - §92. General Principles of Latin Compounds
14.3 - §93. Compounds Related to FACERE
14.4 - §94. Other Verbal Compounds
14.5 - §95. Interesting Words
14.6 - §96. Chapter 14: Exercises
Chapter Fifteen. Appendices
15.1 - Appendix I. Key to Exercises (Latin)
15.2 - Appendix II. Summary of Vocabulary Tables (Latin)