Human Nutrition
first Edition

Human Nutrition

by University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science a Cheryl Gibby, William Meinke,

This open access textbook was developed as an introductory nutrition resource to reflect the diverse dietary patterns of people in Hawai‘i and the greater Pacific. Using the ‘ōlelo no‘eau, or Hawaiian proverb, stated above, we believe that the principles of nutrition should be taught through the context of our communities and environments.

Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla is a Native Hawaiian faculty member in the Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She teaches a number of courses in nutrition both face to face and online.

Alan Titchenal received a PhD in nutrition from the University of California at Davis with emphasis on exercise physiology and physiological chemistry. His work at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa has focused on the broad areas of nutrition and human performance and translation of nutrition science for public consumption. This has included the “Got Nutrients?” project that provides daily messages on topics related to nutrition, fitness, and health and the publication of over 600 articles in the Honolulu Star-Advertiser newspaper.

Allison Calabrese is currently a MS graduate student in the Nutritional Sciences Program at University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She obtained her BS from California Lutheran University in Exercise Science with an emphasis in Health Professions.  Her research interests include the relationship between diet and optimal health.

Cheryl Gibby received her BA, MS in Nutritional Sciences, and PhD in Nutrition from the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She has served as an instructor for the introductory Nutrition course at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, and her research interests include infant and child health, dental and bone health, mobile health interventions, school nutrition policies, and online education.

Billy Meinke is the Open Educational Resources Technologist for the Outreach College at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.

Human Nutrition by University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

This Human Nutrition OER textbook includes content from a number of OER sources. All new content added to this book is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, while select chapters have been used and are shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license. All other content not under a CC is used fairly and is labeled as such.

Introduction. Front Matter
Introduction.1 - Preface
Introduction.2 - About the Contributors
Introduction.3 - Acknowledgements
Chapter One. Basic Concepts in Nutrition
1.1 - Introduction
1.2 - Food Quality
1.3 - Units of Measure
1.4 - Lifestyles and Nutrition
1.5 - Achieving a Healthy Diet
1.6 - Research and the Scientific Method
1.7 - Types of Scientific Studies
Chapter Two. The Human Body
2.1 - Introduction
2.2 - Basic Biology, Anatomy, and Physiology
2.3 - The Digestive System
2.4 - The Cardiovascular System
2.5 - Central Nervous System
2.6 - The Respiratory System
2.7 - The Endocrine System
2.8 - The Urinary System
2.9 - The Muscular System
2.10 - The Skeletal System
2.11 - The Immune System
2.12 - Indicators of Health: Body Mass Index, Body Fat Content, and Fat Distribution
Chapter Three. Water and Electrolytes
3.1 - Introduction
3.2 - Overview of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
3.3 - Water’s Importance to Vitality
3.4 - Regulation of Water Balance
3.5 - Electrolytes Important for Fluid Balance
3.6 - Sodium
3.7 - Chloride
3.8 - Potassium
3.9 - Consequences of Deficiency or Excess
3.10 - Water Concerns
3.11 - Popular Beverage Choices
Chapter Four. Carbohydrates
4.1 - Introduction
4.2 - Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
4.3 - The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body
4.4 - Health Consequences and Benefits of High-Carbohydrate Diets
4.5 - Carbohydrates and Personal Diet Choices
Chapter Five. Lipids
5.1 - Introduction
5.2 - The Functions of Lipids in the Body
5.3 - The Role of Lipids in Food
5.4 - How Lipids Work
5.5 - Nonessential and Essential Fatty Acids
5.6 - Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
5.7 - Tools for Change
5.8 - Lipids and the Food Industry
5.9 - Lipids and Disease
5.10 - A Personal Choice about Lipids
Chapter Six. Protein
6.1 - Introduction
6.2 - Defining Protein
6.3 - The Role of Proteins in Foods: Cooking and Denaturation
6.4 - Protein Digestion and Absorption
6.5 - Protein’s Functions in the Body
6.6 - Diseases Involving Proteins
6.7 - Proteins in a Nutshell
6.8 - Proteins, Diet, and Personal Choices
Chapter Seven. Alcohol
7.1 - Introduction
7.2 - Alcohol Metabolism
7.3 - Health Consequences of Alcohol Abuse
7.4 - Health Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Intake
Chapter Eight. Energy
8.1 - Introduction
8.2 - The Atom
8.3 - Weight Management
8.4 - Factors Affecting Energy Intake
8.5 - Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure
8.6 - Dietary, Behavioral, and Physical Activity Recommendations for Weight Management
Chapter Nine. Vitamins
9.1 - Introduction
9.2 - Fat-Soluble Vitamins
9.3 - Water-Soluble Vitamins
9.4 - Antioxidants
9.5 - The Body’s Offense
9.6 - Phytochemicals
Chapter Ten. Major Minerals
10.1 - Introduction
10.2 - Calcium
10.3 - Phosphorus
10.4 - Sulfur
10.5 - Magnesium
10.6 - Summary of Major Minerals
Chapter Eleven. Trace Mineral
11.1 - Introduction
11.2 - Iron
11.3 - Copper
11.4 - Zinc
11.5 - Selenium
11.6 - Iodine
11.7 - Chromium
11.8 - Manganese
11.9 - Molybdenum
11.10 - Fluoride
11.11 - Summary of Trace Minerals
Chapter Twelve. Nutrition Applications
12.1 - Introduction
12.2 - Understanding Daily Reference Intakes
12.3 - Discovering Nutrition Facts
12.4 - Building Healthy Eating Patterns
12.5 - MyPlate Planner
12.6 - Pacific Based Dietary Guidelines
12.7 - Understanding the Bigger Picture of Dietary Guidelines
Chapter Thirteen. Lifespan Nutrition From Pregnancy to the Toddler Years
13.1 - Introduction
13.2 - Pregnancy
13.3 - Infancy
13.4 - Toddler Years
Chapter Fourteen. Lifespan Nutrition During Childhood and Adolescence
14.1 - Introduction
14.2 - Childhood
14.3 - Adolescence
14.4 - Late Adolescence
Chapter Fifteen. Lifespan Nutrition in Adulthood
15.1 - Introduction
15.2 - Young Adulthood
15.3 - Middle Age
15.4 - Older Adulthood: The Golden Years
Chapter Sixteen. Performance Nutrition
16.1 - Introduction
16.2 - The Essential Elements of Physical Fitness
16.3 - The Benefits of Physical Activity
16.4 - Fuel Sources
16.5 - Sports Nutrition
16.6 - Water and Electrolyte Needs
16.7 - Food Supplements and Food Replacements
Chapter Seventeen. Food Safety
17.1 - Introduction
17.2 - The Major Types of Foodborne Illness
17.3 - The Causes of Food Contamination
17.4 - Protecting the Public Health
17.5 - The Food System
17.6 - Food Preservation
17.7 - Food Processing
17.8 - The Effect of New Technologies
17.9 - Efforts on the Consumer Level: What You Can Do
Chapter Eighteen. Nutritional Issues
18.1 - Introduction
18.2 - Comparing Diets
18.3 - Nutrition, Health and Disease
18.4 - Threats to Health
18.5 - Undernutrition, Overnutrition, and Malnutrition
18.6 - Food Insecurity
18.7 - Careers in Nutrition
Chapter Nineteen. Back Matter
19.1 - Appendix A
19.2 - Attributions