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Essentials of Linguistics

Table of contents
Chapter One. Thinking Like a Linguist
1.1 - Linguistics is Science
1.2 - Mental Grammar
1.3 - Creativity and Generativity
1.4 - Fundamental Properties of Language
1.5 - Practice Time
1.6 - Summary
Chapter Two. Producing Speech Sounds
2.1 - How Humans Produce Speech
2.2 - Articulators
2.3 - Describing Speech Sounds: the IPA
2.4 - IPA symbols and speech sounds
2.5 - Sonority, Consonants, and Vowels
2.6 - Classifying Consonants
2.7 - Classifying Vowels
2.8 - Diphthongs
2.9 - Various Accents of English
2.10 - Practice Time
2.11 - Summary
Chapter Three. Transcribing Speech Sounds
3.1 - Broad and Narrow Transcription
3.2 - IPA for Canadian English
3.3 - Syllabic Consonants
3.4 - Aspirated Stops in English
3.5 - Articulatory Processes: Assimilation
3.6 - Other Articulatory Processes
3.7 - Suprasegmentals
3.8 - Transcribing Casual Speech
3.9 - Practice Time
3.10 - Summary
Chapter Four. Speech Sounds in the Mind
4.1 - Phonemes and Contrast
4.2 - Allophones and Predictable Variation
4.3 - Phonetic Segments and Features
4.4 - Natural Classes
4.5 - Phonological Derivations
4.6 - Practice Time
4.7 - Summary
Chapter Five. Psycholinguistics of Learning Sounds
5.1 - How Babies Learn the Phoneme Categories of Their Language
5.2 - How Adults Learn the Phoneme Categories in a New Language
5.3 - Practice Time
5.4 - Summary
Chapter Six. Word Forms
6.1 - Words and Morphemes
6.2 - Allomorphs
6.3 - Inflectional Morphology
6.4 - Derivational Morphology
6.5 - Inflectional Morphology in Some Indigenous Languages
6.6 - Practice Time
6.7 - Summary
Chapter Seven. Combining Words
7.1 - Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives: Open Class Categories
7.2 - Compound Words
7.3 - Closed Class Categories (Function Words)
7.4 - Auxiliaries
7.5 - Neurolinguistics: Syntactic Category Differences in the Brain
7.6 - Practice Time
7.7 - Summary
Chapter Eight. Forming Sentences
8.1 - Tree Diagrams
8.2 - X-bar Phrase Structure
8.3 - Constituents
8.4 - Sentences are Phrases
8.5 - English Verb Forms
8.6 - Subcategories
8.7 - Grammatical Roles
8.8 - Adjuncts
8.9 - Move
8.10 - Wh-Movement
8.11 - Do-Support
8.12 - Psycholinguistics: Traces in the Mind
8.13 - Practice Time
8.14 - Summary
Chapter Nine. Sentence Structure and Meaning
9.1 - Ambiguity
9.2 - Events, Participants, and Thematic Roles
9.3 - Thematic Roles and Passive Sentences
9.4 - Neurolinguistics: Using EEG to Investigate Syntax and Semantics
9.5 - Neurolinguistics and Second Language Learning
9.6 - Practice Time
9.7 - Summary
Chapter Ten. Word Meanings
10.1 - Elements of Word Meaning: Intensions and Extensions
10.2 - Intensions in the Mind
10.3 - Psycholinguistics of Word Meanings
10.4 - Practice Time
10.5 - Summary
Chapter Eleven. Indigenous Languages
11.1 - Indigenous Languages and the Legacy of Residential Schools
11.2 - Preserving Mohawk
11.3 - Learning Mohawk
11.4 - Mohawk Culture and Language
11.5 - Creating Materials for Teaching Mohawk
11.6 - Speaking Mohawk and Reconciliation
11.7 - The Future of Indigenous Languages in Canada
11.8 - Practice Time
11.9 - Summary
Chapter Twelve. Back Matter Test
Chapter Thirteen. References
Essentials of Linguistics
1st Edition
Catherine Anderson
© Mar 15, 2018. McMaster University. Textbook content produced by Catherine Anderson is licensed under a CC-BY 4.0 International license, except where otherwise noted.
Table Of Contents
  • Introduction - Front Matter
  • Chapter One - Thinking Like a Linguist
    • 1.1 - Linguistics is Science
    • 1.2 - Mental Grammar
    • 1.3 - Creativity and Generativity
    • 1.4 - Fundamental Properties of Language
    • 1.5 - Practice Time
    • 1.6 - Summary
  • Chapter Two - Producing Speech Sounds
    • 2.1 - How Humans Produce Speech
    • 2.2 - Articulators
    • 2.3 - Describing Speech Sounds: the IPA
    • 2.4 - IPA symbols and speech sounds
    • 2.5 - Sonority, Consonants, and Vowels
    • 2.6 - Classifying Consonants
    • 2.7 - Classifying Vowels
    • 2.8 - Diphthongs
    • 2.9 - Various Accents of English
    • 2.10 - Practice Time
    • 2.11 - Summary
  • Chapter Three - Transcribing Speech Sounds
    • 3.1 - Broad and Narrow Transcription
    • 3.2 - IPA for Canadian English
    • 3.3 - Syllabic Consonants
    • 3.4 - Aspirated Stops in English
    • 3.5 - Articulatory Processes: Assimilation
    • 3.6 - Other Articulatory Processes
    • 3.7 - Suprasegmentals
    • 3.8 - Transcribing Casual Speech
    • 3.9 - Practice Time
    • 3.10 - Summary
  • Chapter Four - Speech Sounds in the Mind
    • 4.1 - Phonemes and Contrast
    • 4.2 - Allophones and Predictable Variation
    • 4.3 - Phonetic Segments and Features
    • 4.4 - Natural Classes
    • 4.5 - Phonological Derivations
    • 4.6 - Practice Time
    • 4.7 - Summary
  • Chapter Five - Psycholinguistics of Learning Sounds
    • 5.1 - How Babies Learn the Phoneme Categories of Their Language
    • 5.2 - How Adults Learn the Phoneme Categories in a New Language
    • 5.3 - Practice Time
    • 5.4 - Summary
  • Chapter Six - Word Forms
    • 6.1 - Words and Morphemes
    • 6.2 - Allomorphs
    • 6.3 - Inflectional Morphology
    • 6.4 - Derivational Morphology
    • 6.5 - Inflectional Morphology in Some Indigenous Languages
    • 6.6 - Practice Time
    • 6.7 - Summary
  • Chapter Seven - Combining Words
    • 7.1 - Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives: Open Class Categories
    • 7.2 - Compound Words
    • 7.3 - Closed Class Categories (Function Words)
    • 7.4 - Auxiliaries
    • 7.5 - Neurolinguistics: Syntactic Category Differences in the Brain
    • 7.6 - Practice Time
    • 7.7 - Summary
  • Chapter Eight - Forming Sentences
    • 8.1 - Tree Diagrams
    • 8.2 - X-bar Phrase Structure
    • 8.3 - Constituents
    • 8.4 - Sentences are Phrases
    • 8.5 - English Verb Forms
    • 8.6 - Subcategories
    • 8.7 - Grammatical Roles
    • 8.8 - Adjuncts
    • 8.9 - Move
    • 8.10 - Wh-Movement
    • 8.11 - Do-Support
    • 8.12 - Psycholinguistics: Traces in the Mind
    • 8.13 - Practice Time
    • 8.14 - Summary
  • Chapter Nine - Sentence Structure and Meaning
    • 9.1 - Ambiguity
    • 9.2 - Events, Participants, and Thematic Roles
    • 9.3 - Thematic Roles and Passive Sentences
    • 9.4 - Neurolinguistics: Using EEG to Investigate Syntax and Semantics
    • 9.5 - Neurolinguistics and Second Language Learning
    • 9.6 - Practice Time
    • 9.7 - Summary
  • Chapter Ten - Word Meanings
    • 10.1 - Elements of Word Meaning: Intensions and Extensions
    • 10.2 - Intensions in the Mind
    • 10.3 - Psycholinguistics of Word Meanings
    • 10.4 - Practice Time
    • 10.5 - Summary
  • Chapter Eleven - Indigenous Languages
    • 11.1 - Indigenous Languages and the Legacy of Residential Schools
    • 11.2 - Preserving Mohawk
    • 11.3 - Learning Mohawk
    • 11.4 - Mohawk Culture and Language
    • 11.5 - Creating Materials for Teaching Mohawk
    • 11.6 - Speaking Mohawk and Reconciliation
    • 11.7 - The Future of Indigenous Languages in Canada
    • 11.8 - Practice Time
    • 11.9 - Summary
  • Chapter Twelve - Back Matter Test
  • Chapter Thirteen - References
Introduction
Front Matter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essentials of Linguistics

 

 

CATHERINE ANDERSON

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MCMASTER UNIVERSITY

HAMILTON, ONTARIO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essentials of Linguistics by Catherine Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Introduction.1. About the Book

About Essentials of Linguistics

This Open Educational Resource (OER) brings together Open Access content from around the web and enhances it with dynamic video lectures about the core areas of theoretical linguistics (phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics), supplemented with discussion of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic findings. Essentials of Linguistics is suitable for any beginning learner of linguistics but is primarily aimed at the Canadian learner, focusing on Canadian English for learning phonetic transcription, and discussing the status of Indigenous languages in Canada. Drawing on best practices for instructional design, Essentials of Linguistics is suitable for blended classes, traditional lecture classes, and for self-directed learning. No prior knowledge of linguistics is required.

To the Student

Your instructor might assign some parts or all of this OER to support your learning, or you may choose to use it to teach yourself introductory linguistics. You might decide to read the textbook straight through and watch the videos in order, or you might select specific topics that are of particular interest to you. However you use the OER, we recommend that you begin with Chapter 1, which provides fundamentals for the rest of the topics. You will also find that if you complete the quizzes and attempt the exercises, you’ll achieve a better understanding of the material in each chapter.

To the Instructor

You may use Essentials of Linguistics as a stand-alone textbook or as a supplement to a traditional textbook. The OER is suitable for an in-person, blended or fully online course. Because this is an entirely open resource, its content is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution 4.0. International License; therefore, you are free to redistribute, revise, remix, and retain any of the parts of the eTextbook.

Introduction.2. About the Author

Photo credit: Colin Czerneda, 2017

 

 

 

Catherine Anderson

Catherine Anderson is a Teaching Professor in the Department of Linguistics & Languages at McMaster University. She earned a Ph.D. in Linguistics from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. Dr. Anderson conducts research on undergraduate learning and curriculum in linguistics. She lives in Hamilton, Ontario, with her partner and their school-aged twins.

Introduction.3. Acknowledgements

This project was funded by a grant from the Open Textbook Initiative of eCampusOntario for adoption and adaptation of existing resources and supported by McMaster University’s Paul R. MacPherson Institute for Leadership, Innovation and Excellence in Teaching.
Anastassiya Yudintseva was the Instructional Designer for the project, and Kendrick Potvin was the Digital Media Specialist. Zafar Syed also provided oversight.

Most of the material included in this ebook originated in Dr. Anderson’s Introduction to Linguistics courses, the blended design of which was supported by McMaster University’s Humanities Media and Computing, especially Katrina Espanol-Miller, with financial support from the Faculty of Humanities and the Department of Linguistics. This ebook also incorporates material adapted from How Language Works by Michael Gasser, under a GNU Free Documentation License.

Special thanks go to David Kanatawakhon-Maracle for his contributions to Chapter 11. Captions for the videos were the work of a capable team of students from Dr. Anderson’s Ling 2SY3 class: Maryam Ahmed, Brianna Borean, Carina Chan, Elena Davis, Meliha Horzum, Emiliya Krichevskaya, Thea Robinson, Connor Savery, Saloni Tattar, and Kathryn Williams.

Introduction.4. Acknowledgements: eCampusOntario

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