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Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin

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Table of contents
Chapter One. Introduction
1.1 - §1. The Fascination of Words
1.2 - §2. What is Greek and Latin Roots (GRS 250)
1.3 - §3. Why Latin and Greek?
1.4 - §4. The Indo-European Family of Languages
1.5 - §5. The Unique Nature of English
1.6 - §6. Dictionary Practice
1.7 - §7. Latin Pronunciation
Chapter Two. The Latin Noun (Declensions 1 & 2)
2.1 - §8. Form and Meaning
2.2 - §9. What is a Noun?
2.3 - §10. Latin Nouns of the First Declension
2.4 - §11. Interesting Words
2.5 - §12. Latin Nouns of the Second Declension
2.6 - §13. Interesting Words
2.7 - §14. Patterns of Change in Form
2.8 - §15. Patterns of Change in Meaning
2.9 - §16. The Legacy of Latin: I. Old English
2.10 - §17. Chapter 2: Exercises
Chapter Three. The Latin Noun (Declensions 3, 4, 5)
3.1 - §18. Latin Nouns of the Third Declension
3.2 - §19. Interesting Words
3.3 - §20. Latin Nouns of the Fourth Declension
3.4 - §21. Latin Nouns of the Fifth Declension
3.5 - §22. Summary of the Five Latin Noun Declensions
3.6 - §23. The Legacy of Latin: II. Middle English
3.7 - §24. Chapter 3: Exercises
Chapter Four. Simple Latin Adjectives
4.1 - §25. What is an Adjective?
4.2 - §26. Latin Adjectives: 1st and 2nd Declension Type
4.3 - §27. Latin Adjectives: 3rd Declension Type
4.4 - §28. Interesting Words
4.5 - §29. Comparative and Superlative Forms
4.6 - §30. Latin Adverbs
4.7 - §31. The Legacy of Latin: III. Modern English
4.8 - §32. Chapter 4: Exercises
Chapter Five. Turning Latin Nouns into Adjectives
5.1 - §33. The Process of Affixation
5.2 - §34. Adjective-forming Suffixes in English
5.3 - §35. The Latin suffix -ALIS (> E -al) / -ARIS (> E -ar or -ary)
5.4 - §36. The Latin suffix -ILIS (> E -ile or -il)
5.5 - §37. The Latin suffixes -ANUS (> E -an) and -INUS (> E -ine)
5.6 - §38. The Latin suffix -ARIUS (> E -ary, -arium, -er)
5.7 - §39. The Latin suffix -OSUS (> E -ous, -ose)
5.8 - §40. The Latin suffix -LENTUS (> E -lent)
5.9 - §41. Summary of Adjective-forming Suffixes
5.10 - §42. Interesting words
5.11 - §43. Word Analysis
5.12 - §44. Chapter 5: Exercises
Chapter Six. Turning Latin Adjectives into Latin Nouns
6.1 - §45. Noun-forming Suffixes in English
6.2 - §46. The Latin suffix -ITAS (> E -ity); variant -ETAS (> E -ety)
6.3 - §47. The Latin suffix -ITUDO (> E -itude)
6.4 - §48. The Latin suffix -ITIA (> E -ice)
6.5 - §49. Other Noun-forming Suffixes (-IA, -MONIUM)
6.6 - §50. Interesting Words
6.7 - §51. Chapter 6: Exercises
Chapter Seven. Latin Diminutives
7.1 - §52. What is a Diminutive?
7.2 - §53. The Regular Latin Diminutive Suffixes -ULUS and -CULUS
7.3 - §54. The Variant Latin Diminutive Suffixes -OLUS and -ELLUS
7.4 - §55. Diminutive Adjective Derivatives in -ARIS
7.5 - §56. Interesting Words
Chapter Eight. Latin Prefixes
8.1 - §57. An Introduction to Prefixes
8.2 - §58. Prefixes Denoting Place
8.3 - §59. A Summary of Latin Prefixes
8.4 - §60. Interesting Words
Chapter Nine. The Latin Verb System
9.1 - §61. What is a Verb?
9.2 - §62. The Two Keys to the Latin Verb
9.3 - §63. Latin Verbs of the First Conjugation
9.4 - §64. Latin Verbs of the Second Conjugation
9.5 - §65. Latin Verbs of the Third Conjugation
9.6 - §66. Latin Verbs of the Third I-STEM and Fourth Conjugations
9.7 - §67. Interesting Words
Chapter Ten. Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Nouns
10.1 - §68. How Can Verbs Become Other Parts of Speech?
10.2 - §69. The Perfect Participle as 2nd Declension Neuter Noun
10.3 - §70. The Perfect Participle as 4th Declension Noun
10.4 - §71. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -IO as Abstract Noun
10.5 - §72. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -URA as Abstract Noun
10.6 - §73. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -OR as Agent Noun
10.7 - §74. Other Noun-forming suffixes
10.8 - §75. Chapter 10: Exercises
Chapter Eleven. Turning Latin Nouns into Latin Verbs
11.1 - §76. What is a Denominative Verb?
11.2 - §77. Denominative Verbs in -ARE, -ATUS, and their nouns in -AT -IO
11.3 - §78. Interesting Words
11.4 - §79. Turning Diminutive Nouns into Verbs
Chapter Twelve. Latin Present Participles and Gerundives
12.1 - §80. How to Recognize a Present Participle (Latin -NT-)
12.2 - §81. Participial Abstract Nouns in -NTIA (> E -nce or -ncy)
12.3 - §82. English Derivatives from Latin Present Participles
12.4 - §83. Interesting Words
12.5 - §84. English Spelling Irregularities
12.6 - §85. The Latin Gerundive: the -ND- form
12.7 - §86. Chapter 12: Exercises
Chapter Thirteen. Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Adjectives
13.1 - §87. The Latin suffixes -BILIS (> E -ble) and -ILIS (> E -ile)
13.2 - §88. Adjectives from the Present Base (-AX, -UUS, -ULUS, -IDUS)
13.3 - §89. Adjectives from the Perfect Base (-ORIUS, -IVUS)
13.4 - §90. Interesting Words
Chapter Fourteen. Compound Words in Latin
14.1 - §91. What is a Compound Word?
14.2 - §92. General Principles of Latin Compounds
14.3 - §93. Compounds Related to FACERE
14.4 - §94. Other Verbal Compounds
14.5 - §95. Interesting Words
14.6 - §96. Chapter 14: Exercises
Chapter Fifteen. Appendices
15.1 - Appendix I. Key to Exercises (Latin)
15.2 - Appendix II. Summary of Vocabulary Tables (Latin)
Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin
6th Edition
Peter Smith
Creative Commons Attribution-4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license
Table Of Contents
  • Introduction - Front Matter
  • Chapter One - Introduction
    • 1.1 - §1. The Fascination of Words
    • 1.2 - §2. What is Greek and Latin Roots (GRS 250)
    • 1.3 - §3. Why Latin and Greek?
    • 1.4 - §4. The Indo-European Family of Languages
    • 1.5 - §5. The Unique Nature of English
    • 1.6 - §6. Dictionary Practice
    • 1.7 - §7. Latin Pronunciation
  • Chapter Two - The Latin Noun (Declensions 1 & 2)
    • 2.1 - §8. Form and Meaning
    • 2.2 - §9. What is a Noun?
    • 2.3 - §10. Latin Nouns of the First Declension
    • 2.4 - §11. Interesting Words
    • 2.5 - §12. Latin Nouns of the Second Declension
    • 2.6 - §13. Interesting Words
    • 2.7 - §14. Patterns of Change in Form
    • 2.8 - §15. Patterns of Change in Meaning
    • 2.9 - §16. The Legacy of Latin: I. Old English
    • 2.10 - §17. Chapter 2: Exercises
  • Chapter Three - The Latin Noun (Declensions 3, 4, 5)
    • 3.1 - §18. Latin Nouns of the Third Declension
    • 3.2 - §19. Interesting Words
    • 3.3 - §20. Latin Nouns of the Fourth Declension
    • 3.4 - §21. Latin Nouns of the Fifth Declension
    • 3.5 - §22. Summary of the Five Latin Noun Declensions
    • 3.6 - §23. The Legacy of Latin: II. Middle English
    • 3.7 - §24. Chapter 3: Exercises
  • Chapter Four - Simple Latin Adjectives
    • 4.1 - §25. What is an Adjective?
    • 4.2 - §26. Latin Adjectives: 1st and 2nd Declension Type
    • 4.3 - §27. Latin Adjectives: 3rd Declension Type
    • 4.4 - §28. Interesting Words
    • 4.5 - §29. Comparative and Superlative Forms
    • 4.6 - §30. Latin Adverbs
    • 4.7 - §31. The Legacy of Latin: III. Modern English
    • 4.8 - §32. Chapter 4: Exercises
  • Chapter Five - Turning Latin Nouns into Adjectives
    • 5.1 - §33. The Process of Affixation
    • 5.2 - §34. Adjective-forming Suffixes in English
    • 5.3 - §35. The Latin suffix -ALIS (> E -al) / -ARIS (> E -ar or -ary)
    • 5.4 - §36. The Latin suffix -ILIS (> E -ile or -il)
    • 5.5 - §37. The Latin suffixes -ANUS (> E -an) and -INUS (> E -ine)
    • 5.6 - §38. The Latin suffix -ARIUS (> E -ary, -arium, -er)
    • 5.7 - §39. The Latin suffix -OSUS (> E -ous, -ose)
    • 5.8 - §40. The Latin suffix -LENTUS (> E -lent)
    • 5.9 - §41. Summary of Adjective-forming Suffixes
    • 5.10 - §42. Interesting words
    • 5.11 - §43. Word Analysis
    • 5.12 - §44. Chapter 5: Exercises
  • Chapter Six - Turning Latin Adjectives into Latin Nouns
    • 6.1 - §45. Noun-forming Suffixes in English
    • 6.2 - §46. The Latin suffix -ITAS (> E -ity); variant -ETAS (> E -ety)
    • 6.3 - §47. The Latin suffix -ITUDO (> E -itude)
    • 6.4 - §48. The Latin suffix -ITIA (> E -ice)
    • 6.5 - §49. Other Noun-forming Suffixes (-IA, -MONIUM)
    • 6.6 - §50. Interesting Words
    • 6.7 - §51. Chapter 6: Exercises
  • Chapter Seven - Latin Diminutives
    • 7.1 - §52. What is a Diminutive?
    • 7.2 - §53. The Regular Latin Diminutive Suffixes -ULUS and -CULUS
    • 7.3 - §54. The Variant Latin Diminutive Suffixes -OLUS and -ELLUS
    • 7.4 - §55. Diminutive Adjective Derivatives in -ARIS
    • 7.5 - §56. Interesting Words
  • Chapter Eight - Latin Prefixes
    • 8.1 - §57. An Introduction to Prefixes
    • 8.2 - §58. Prefixes Denoting Place
    • 8.3 - §59. A Summary of Latin Prefixes
    • 8.4 - §60. Interesting Words
  • Chapter Nine - The Latin Verb System
    • 9.1 - §61. What is a Verb?
    • 9.2 - §62. The Two Keys to the Latin Verb
    • 9.3 - §63. Latin Verbs of the First Conjugation
    • 9.4 - §64. Latin Verbs of the Second Conjugation
    • 9.5 - §65. Latin Verbs of the Third Conjugation
    • 9.6 - §66. Latin Verbs of the Third I-STEM and Fourth Conjugations
    • 9.7 - §67. Interesting Words
  • Chapter Ten - Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Nouns
    • 10.1 - §68. How Can Verbs Become Other Parts of Speech?
    • 10.2 - §69. The Perfect Participle as 2nd Declension Neuter Noun
    • 10.3 - §70. The Perfect Participle as 4th Declension Noun
    • 10.4 - §71. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -IO as Abstract Noun
    • 10.5 - §72. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -URA as Abstract Noun
    • 10.6 - §73. The Perfect Participle Base + suffix -OR as Agent Noun
    • 10.7 - §74. Other Noun-forming suffixes
    • 10.8 - §75. Chapter 10: Exercises
  • Chapter Eleven - Turning Latin Nouns into Latin Verbs
    • 11.1 - §76. What is a Denominative Verb?
    • 11.2 - §77. Denominative Verbs in -ARE, -ATUS, and their nouns in -AT -IO
    • 11.3 - §78. Interesting Words
    • 11.4 - §79. Turning Diminutive Nouns into Verbs
  • Chapter Twelve - Latin Present Participles and Gerundives
    • 12.1 - §80. How to Recognize a Present Participle (Latin -NT-)
    • 12.2 - §81. Participial Abstract Nouns in -NTIA (> E -nce or -ncy)
    • 12.3 - §82. English Derivatives from Latin Present Participles
    • 12.4 - §83. Interesting Words
    • 12.5 - §84. English Spelling Irregularities
    • 12.6 - §85. The Latin Gerundive: the -ND- form
    • 12.7 - §86. Chapter 12: Exercises
  • Chapter Thirteen - Turning Latin Verbs into Latin Adjectives
    • 13.1 - §87. The Latin suffixes -BILIS (> E -ble) and -ILIS (> E -ile)
    • 13.2 - §88. Adjectives from the Present Base (-AX, -UUS, -ULUS, -IDUS)
    • 13.3 - §89. Adjectives from the Perfect Base (-ORIUS, -IVUS)
    • 13.4 - §90. Interesting Words
  • Chapter Fourteen - Compound Words in Latin
    • 14.1 - §91. What is a Compound Word?
    • 14.2 - §92. General Principles of Latin Compounds
    • 14.3 - §93. Compounds Related to FACERE
    • 14.4 - §94. Other Verbal Compounds
    • 14.5 - §95. Interesting Words
    • 14.6 - §96. Chapter 14: Exercises
  • Chapter Fifteen - Appendices
    • 15.1 - Appendix I. Key to Exercises (Latin)
    • 15.2 - Appendix II. Summary of Vocabulary Tables (Latin)
Introduction
Front Matter

Greek and Latin Roots
for Science and the Social Sciences

PART I: LATIN

 

Sixth Edition (Adapted)
Copyright © Estate of Peter L. Smith

 

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Copyright © 2016 by Estate of Peter Smith

Published by
University of Victoria
Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2
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press@uvic.ca

This book is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. This means that you are free to copy, redistribute, and modify or adapt this book. Under this license, anyone who redistributes or modifies this textbook, in whole or in part, can do so for free providing they properly attribute the book as follows:

Smith, Peter. (2016). Greek and Latin Roots: for Science and the Social Sciences, Part I – Latin. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria is used under a CC BY 4.0 International License.

Additionally, if you redistribute this textbook, in whole or in part, in either a print or digital format, then you must retain on every electronic page and at least one page at the front of a print copy the following attribution:

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Cover image: Attic kylix by painter, Douris (ca. 480 BC). Photo by Egisto Sani. CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Generic license.

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Creative Commons License
Greek and Latin Roots: Part I - Latin by Peter Smith (Estate) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Introduction.1. Preface to 5th Edition

It was at the end of the 1980s that I decided to produce an in-house manual for what was then called Classical Studies 250. At that time, the price of our commercial textbook had already soared beyond fifty dollars, and was still climbing. If only for economic reasons, a course manual seemed to make excellent sense.

But cost considerations were not the only factors. Although I regarded our former textbook1  as the best of its kind on the market, it was over forty years old, and was hardly ideal for the Canadian undergraduate of the 1990s. Moreover, it contained too much detail for a thirteen-week course, and had some inaccurate and confusing features.

Probably all of us who teach language and etymology courses get the itch to construct a textbook that perfectly matches our own approach. A successful course manual will obviously reflect the instructor’s methodology and academic priorities. However, a good one should also be well organized, clearly written, and interesting to read. That adds up to a tall order, and I can only hope that I’ve approached the goal.

I invite every student to offer criticisms and suggestions for change. Because this work has now gone through several editions, most of the glaring errors should have been caught; but there is still bound to be room for improvement.  If any explanation is puzzling or confusing, please let me know. If more examples or more exercises are needed, that lack can be remedied. There are now also computer exercises available in the University Language Centre.

Part I of the book covers Latin material. Part II—shorter in length, but no less challenging—deals with Greek. Each section is designed to provide roughly six weeks of instruction, before and after Reading Break.

Students can rest assured that these materials are being sold at cost, with no financial profit to the author or the Department. Indeed, preparation expenses have been absorbed by the Department, and the price reflects only the actual cost of printing and distribution.

Peter L. Smith
University of Victoria
November 1997 (5th Edition)

Introduction.2. Foreword

The legacy of Professor Peter L. Smith at the University of Victoria is great. Born in Victoria, Peter graduated high school with the highest marks in the province and took his undergraduate degrees at Victoria College and the University of British Columbia. Having won the Governor General’s Award he attended Yale University where he wrote his PhD focused on the Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric Ausonius. He then had a brief teaching year in Ottawa, but by the early 1960s Peter was home again and began his professional career as a teacher and administrator with the newly formed University of Victoria. In addition to his Classical scholarship, which focused on Latin lyric poetry and drama, Peter wrote a history of the university, A Multitude of the Wise: UVic Remembered (1994) reflecting on the many transformations he witnessed here as UVic became a world-renowned university. Peter had an exacting but jovial manner that students and colleagues can never forget. His demand for excellence impressed anyone who had the pleasure of knowing him.

The Department of Greek and Roman Studies is extremely happy to have assisted the University of Victoria library staff with the publication of this textbook which served one of the many popular courses Peter taught for our Department. This book would not be possible without the help and support of Peter’s family, and we gratefully acknowledge his wife Mary Jean, his son Dr. Daniel Hinman-Smith, and daughter Sarah Smith.

The open-access publication of this book in digital format, freely available, follows very much in character with Peter’s efforts to enrich the educational life of students of British Columbia. This book serves as a lasting memorial to one of the University of Victoria’s most revered teachers and friends.

Dr. Brendan Burke
Associate Professor and Department Chair
Department of Greek and Roman Studies
University of Victoria

  • 1 Eli E. Burriss and Lionel Casson, Latin and Greek in Current Use, 2nd edition (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1949).

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