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Human Nutrition

Table of contents
Chapter One. Basic Concepts in Nutrition
1.1 - Introduction
1.2 - Food Quality
1.3 - Units of Measure
1.4 - Lifestyles and Nutrition
1.5 - Achieving a Healthy Diet
1.6 - Research and the Scientific Method
1.7 - Types of Scientific Studies
Chapter Two. The Human Body
2.1 - Introduction
2.2 - Basic Biology, Anatomy, and Physiology
2.3 - The Digestive System
2.4 - The Cardiovascular System
2.5 - Central Nervous System
2.6 - The Respiratory System
2.7 - The Endocrine System
2.8 - The Urinary System
2.9 - The Muscular System
2.10 - The Skeletal System
2.11 - The Immune System
2.12 - Indicators of Health: Body Mass Index, Body Fat Content, and Fat Distribution
Chapter Three. Water and Electrolytes
3.1 - Introduction
3.2 - Overview of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
3.3 - Water’s Importance to Vitality
3.4 - Regulation of Water Balance
3.5 - Electrolytes Important for Fluid Balance
3.6 - Sodium
3.7 - Chloride
3.8 - Potassium
3.9 - Consequences of Deficiency or Excess
3.10 - Water Concerns
3.11 - Popular Beverage Choices
Chapter Four. Carbohydrates
4.1 - Introduction
4.2 - Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
4.3 - The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body
4.4 - Health Consequences and Benefits of High-Carbohydrate Diets
4.5 - Carbohydrates and Personal Diet Choices
Chapter Five. Lipids
5.1 - Introduction
5.2 - The Functions of Lipids in the Body
5.3 - The Role of Lipids in Food
5.4 - How Lipids Work
5.5 - Nonessential and Essential Fatty Acids
5.6 - Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
5.7 - Tools for Change
5.8 - Lipids and the Food Industry
5.9 - Lipids and Disease
5.10 - A Personal Choice about Lipids
Chapter Six. Protein
6.1 - Introduction
6.2 - Defining Protein
6.3 - The Role of Proteins in Foods: Cooking and Denaturation
6.4 - Protein Digestion and Absorption
6.5 - Protein’s Functions in the Body
6.6 - Diseases Involving Proteins
6.7 - Proteins in a Nutshell
6.8 - Proteins, Diet, and Personal Choices
Chapter Seven. Alcohol
7.1 - Introduction
7.2 - Alcohol Metabolism
7.3 - Health Consequences of Alcohol Abuse
7.4 - Health Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Intake
Chapter Eight. Energy
8.1 - Introduction
8.2 - The Atom
8.3 - Weight Management
8.4 - Factors Affecting Energy Intake
8.5 - Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure
8.6 - Dietary, Behavioral, and Physical Activity Recommendations for Weight Management
Chapter Nine. Vitamins
9.1 - Introduction
9.2 - Fat-Soluble Vitamins
9.3 - Water-Soluble Vitamins
9.4 - Antioxidants
9.5 - The Body’s Offense
9.6 - Phytochemicals
Chapter Ten. Major Minerals
10.1 - Introduction
10.2 - Calcium
10.3 - Phosphorus
10.4 - Sulfur
10.5 - Magnesium
10.6 - Summary of Major Minerals
Chapter Eleven. Trace Mineral
11.1 - Introduction
11.2 - Iron
11.3 - Copper
11.4 - Zinc
11.5 - Selenium
11.6 - Iodine
11.7 - Chromium
11.8 - Manganese
11.9 - Molybdenum
11.10 - Fluoride
11.11 - Summary of Trace Minerals
Chapter Twelve. Nutrition Applications
12.1 - Introduction
12.2 - Understanding Daily Reference Intakes
12.3 - Discovering Nutrition Facts
12.4 - Building Healthy Eating Patterns
12.5 - MyPlate Planner
12.6 - Pacific Based Dietary Guidelines
12.7 - Understanding the Bigger Picture of Dietary Guidelines
Chapter Thirteen. Lifespan Nutrition From Pregnancy to the Toddler Years
13.1 - Introduction
13.2 - Pregnancy
13.3 - Infancy
13.4 - Toddler Years
Chapter Fourteen. Lifespan Nutrition During Childhood and Adolescence
14.1 - Introduction
14.2 - Childhood
14.3 - Adolescence
14.4 - Late Adolescence
Chapter Fifteen. Lifespan Nutrition in Adulthood
15.1 - Introduction
15.2 - Young Adulthood
15.3 - Middle Age
15.4 - Older Adulthood: The Golden Years
Chapter Sixteen. Performance Nutrition
16.1 - Introduction
16.2 - The Essential Elements of Physical Fitness
16.3 - The Benefits of Physical Activity
16.4 - Fuel Sources
16.5 - Sports Nutrition
16.6 - Water and Electrolyte Needs
16.7 - Food Supplements and Food Replacements
Chapter Seventeen. Food Safety
17.1 - Introduction
17.2 - The Major Types of Foodborne Illness
17.3 - The Causes of Food Contamination
17.4 - Protecting the Public Health
17.5 - The Food System
17.6 - Food Preservation
17.7 - Food Processing
17.8 - The Effect of New Technologies
17.9 - Efforts on the Consumer Level: What You Can Do
Chapter Eighteen. Nutritional Issues
18.1 - Introduction
18.2 - Comparing Diets
18.3 - Nutrition, Health and Disease
18.4 - Threats to Health
18.5 - Undernutrition, Overnutrition, and Malnutrition
18.6 - Food Insecurity
18.7 - Careers in Nutrition
Chapter Nineteen. Back Matter
19.1 - Appendix A
19.2 - Attributions
Human Nutrition
1st Edition
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science a Cheryl Gibby, William Meinke,
Textbook content produced by University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Table Of Contents
  • Introduction - Front Matter
  • Chapter One - Basic Concepts in Nutrition
    • 1.1 - Introduction
    • 1.2 - Food Quality
    • 1.3 - Units of Measure
    • 1.4 - Lifestyles and Nutrition
    • 1.5 - Achieving a Healthy Diet
    • 1.6 - Research and the Scientific Method
    • 1.7 - Types of Scientific Studies
  • Chapter Two - The Human Body
    • 2.1 - Introduction
    • 2.2 - Basic Biology, Anatomy, and Physiology
    • 2.3 - The Digestive System
    • 2.4 - The Cardiovascular System
    • 2.5 - Central Nervous System
    • 2.6 - The Respiratory System
    • 2.7 - The Endocrine System
    • 2.8 - The Urinary System
    • 2.9 - The Muscular System
    • 2.10 - The Skeletal System
    • 2.11 - The Immune System
    • 2.12 - Indicators of Health: Body Mass Index, Body Fat Content, and Fat Distribution
  • Chapter Three - Water and Electrolytes
    • 3.1 - Introduction
    • 3.2 - Overview of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
    • 3.3 - Water’s Importance to Vitality
    • 3.4 - Regulation of Water Balance
    • 3.5 - Electrolytes Important for Fluid Balance
    • 3.6 - Sodium
    • 3.7 - Chloride
    • 3.8 - Potassium
    • 3.9 - Consequences of Deficiency or Excess
    • 3.10 - Water Concerns
    • 3.11 - Popular Beverage Choices
  • Chapter Four - Carbohydrates
    • 4.1 - Introduction
    • 4.2 - Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
    • 4.3 - The Functions of Carbohydrates in the Body
    • 4.4 - Health Consequences and Benefits of High-Carbohydrate Diets
    • 4.5 - Carbohydrates and Personal Diet Choices
  • Chapter Five - Lipids
    • 5.1 - Introduction
    • 5.2 - The Functions of Lipids in the Body
    • 5.3 - The Role of Lipids in Food
    • 5.4 - How Lipids Work
    • 5.5 - Nonessential and Essential Fatty Acids
    • 5.6 - Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
    • 5.7 - Tools for Change
    • 5.8 - Lipids and the Food Industry
    • 5.9 - Lipids and Disease
    • 5.10 - A Personal Choice about Lipids
  • Chapter Six - Protein
    • 6.1 - Introduction
    • 6.2 - Defining Protein
    • 6.3 - The Role of Proteins in Foods: Cooking and Denaturation
    • 6.4 - Protein Digestion and Absorption
    • 6.5 - Protein’s Functions in the Body
    • 6.6 - Diseases Involving Proteins
    • 6.7 - Proteins in a Nutshell
    • 6.8 - Proteins, Diet, and Personal Choices
  • Chapter Seven - Alcohol
    • 7.1 - Introduction
    • 7.2 - Alcohol Metabolism
    • 7.3 - Health Consequences of Alcohol Abuse
    • 7.4 - Health Benefits of Moderate Alcohol Intake
  • Chapter Eight - Energy
    • 8.1 - Introduction
    • 8.2 - The Atom
    • 8.3 - Weight Management
    • 8.4 - Factors Affecting Energy Intake
    • 8.5 - Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure
    • 8.6 - Dietary, Behavioral, and Physical Activity Recommendations for Weight Management
  • Chapter Nine - Vitamins
    • 9.1 - Introduction
    • 9.2 - Fat-Soluble Vitamins
    • 9.3 - Water-Soluble Vitamins
    • 9.4 - Antioxidants
    • 9.5 - The Body’s Offense
    • 9.6 - Phytochemicals
  • Chapter Ten - Major Minerals
    • 10.1 - Introduction
    • 10.2 - Calcium
    • 10.3 - Phosphorus
    • 10.4 - Sulfur
    • 10.5 - Magnesium
    • 10.6 - Summary of Major Minerals
  • Chapter Eleven - Trace Mineral
    • 11.1 - Introduction
    • 11.2 - Iron
    • 11.3 - Copper
    • 11.4 - Zinc
    • 11.5 - Selenium
    • 11.6 - Iodine
    • 11.7 - Chromium
    • 11.8 - Manganese
    • 11.9 - Molybdenum
    • 11.10 - Fluoride
    • 11.11 - Summary of Trace Minerals
  • Chapter Twelve - Nutrition Applications
    • 12.1 - Introduction
    • 12.2 - Understanding Daily Reference Intakes
    • 12.3 - Discovering Nutrition Facts
    • 12.4 - Building Healthy Eating Patterns
    • 12.5 - MyPlate Planner
    • 12.6 - Pacific Based Dietary Guidelines
    • 12.7 - Understanding the Bigger Picture of Dietary Guidelines
  • Chapter Thirteen - Lifespan Nutrition From Pregnancy to the Toddler Years
    • 13.1 - Introduction
    • 13.2 - Pregnancy
    • 13.3 - Infancy
    • 13.4 - Toddler Years
  • Chapter Fourteen - Lifespan Nutrition During Childhood and Adolescence
    • 14.1 - Introduction
    • 14.2 - Childhood
    • 14.3 - Adolescence
    • 14.4 - Late Adolescence
  • Chapter Fifteen - Lifespan Nutrition in Adulthood
    • 15.1 - Introduction
    • 15.2 - Young Adulthood
    • 15.3 - Middle Age
    • 15.4 - Older Adulthood: The Golden Years
  • Chapter Sixteen - Performance Nutrition
    • 16.1 - Introduction
    • 16.2 - The Essential Elements of Physical Fitness
    • 16.3 - The Benefits of Physical Activity
    • 16.4 - Fuel Sources
    • 16.5 - Sports Nutrition
    • 16.6 - Water and Electrolyte Needs
    • 16.7 - Food Supplements and Food Replacements
  • Chapter Seventeen - Food Safety
    • 17.1 - Introduction
    • 17.2 - The Major Types of Foodborne Illness
    • 17.3 - The Causes of Food Contamination
    • 17.4 - Protecting the Public Health
    • 17.5 - The Food System
    • 17.6 - Food Preservation
    • 17.7 - Food Processing
    • 17.8 - The Effect of New Technologies
    • 17.9 - Efforts on the Consumer Level: What You Can Do
  • Chapter Eighteen - Nutritional Issues
    • 18.1 - Introduction
    • 18.2 - Comparing Diets
    • 18.3 - Nutrition, Health and Disease
    • 18.4 - Threats to Health
    • 18.5 - Undernutrition, Overnutrition, and Malnutrition
    • 18.6 - Food Insecurity
    • 18.7 - Careers in Nutrition
  • Chapter Nineteen - Back Matter
    • 19.1 - Appendix A
    • 19.2 - Attributions
Introduction
Front Matter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human Nutrition

 

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI‘I AT MĀNOA FOOD SCIENCE AND HUMAN NUTRITION PROGRAM

 

ALAN TITCHENAL, ALLISON CALABRESE, CHERYL GIBBY, MARIE KAINOA FIALKOWSKI REVILLA, AND WILLIAM MEINKE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Human Nutrition by University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

This Human Nutrition OER textbook includes content from a number of OER sources. All new content added to this book is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, while select chapters have been used and are shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license. All other content not under a CC is used fairly and is labeled as such.

Introduction.1. Preface

‘A‘ohe pau ka ‘ike i ka hālau ho‘okahi

Knowledge isn’t taught in all one place

This open access textbook was developed as an introductory nutrition resource to reflect the diverse dietary patterns of people in Hawai‘i and the greater Pacific. Using the ‘ōlelo no‘eau, or Hawaiian proverb, stated above, we believe that the principles of nutrition should be taught through the context of our communities and environments. Its intended audience are students from the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa enrolled in the Food Science and Human Nutrition (FSHN) 185 course, The Science of Human Nutrition. However, this open access textbook may be of interest to other courses interested in teaching nutrition through a Hawai‘i-Pacific framed lens. This book is best viewed online using the pressbooks format however, multiple formats (e.g., pdf, epub, mobi) are also made available.

 

Preface by University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Introduction.2. About the Contributors

This open access textbook was made possible through the collaboration of faculty, students and staff at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa demonstrating the value of working together, ho‘okahi ka ‘ilau like ana.

Faculty

MARIE KAINOA FIALKOWSKI REVILLA

Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla is a Native Hawaiian faculty member in the Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She teaches a number of courses in nutrition both face to face and online. She is dedicated to developing readily available and accessible nutrition education materials and curricula that reflect Hawai‘i and the Pacific to ensure that her students can relate to the content being learned. She enjoys spending time with her ‘ohana (family) at their home in Ahuimanu on the island of O‘ahu.

ALAN TITCHENAL

Dr. Titchenal received a PhD in nutrition from the University of California at Davis with emphasis on exercise physiology and physiological chemistry. His work at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa has focused on the broad areas of nutrition and human performance and translation of nutrition science for public consumption. This has included the “Got Nutrients?” project that provides daily messages on topics related to nutrition, fitness, and health and the publication of over 600 articles in the Honolulu Star-Advertiser newspaper.

Students

ALLISON CALABRESE

Allison Calabrese is currently a MS graduate student in the Nutritional Sciences Program at University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She obtained her BS from California Lutheran University in Exercise Science with an emphasis in Health Professions. Her research interests include the relationship between diet and optimal health.

CHERYL GIBBY

Cheryl Gibby was born and raised in Hawai‘i and is a wife and mother of three. She received her BA, MS in Nutritional Sciences, and PhD in Nutrition from the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. She has served as an instructor for the introductory Nutrition course at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, and her research interests include infant and child health, dental and bone health, mobile health interventions, school nutrition policies, and online education.

Staff

BILLY MEINKE

Billy is the Open Educational Resources Technologist for the Outreach College at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.

 

Contact Person

Dr. Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla

mariekf@hawaii.edu

808-956-8337

1955 East West Road

Honolulu, HI 96822

University of Hawaii at Manoa

Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences

NOTE TO EDUCATORS USING THIS RESOURCE

Please send edits and suggestions directly to Dr. Fialkowski Revilla on how we may improve the textbook. We also welcome others to adopt the book for their own course needs, however, we would like to be able to keep a record of users so that we may update them on any critical changes to the textbook. Please contact Dr. Fialkowski Revilla if you are considering to adopt the textbook for your course.

 

About the Contributors by University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Introduction.3. Acknowledgements

This Open Educational Resource textbook has been adapted from:

OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology // CC BY 4.0

  • Chapter 2 The Human Body

An Introduction to Human Nutrition // CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

  • Chapter 1 Basic Concepts in Nutrition
  • Chapter 3 Water and Electrolytes
  • Chapter 4 Carbohydrates
  • Chapter 5 Lipids
  • Chapter 6 Protein
  • Chapter 8 Energy
  • Chapter 12 Nutrition Applications
  • Chapter 13 Lifespan Nutrition From Pregnancy to the Toddler Years
  • Chapter 14 Lifespan Nutrition During Childhood and Adolescence
  • Chapter 15 Lifespan Nutrition in Adulthood
  • Chapter 17 Food Safety
  • Chapter 18 Nutritional Issues

Chapters and sections were borrowed and adapted from the above existing OER textbooks on human nutrition. Without these foundational texts, a lot more work would have been required to complete this project. Mahalo (thank you) to those who shared before us.

All other content should include the following attribution statement:

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Human Nutrition by the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program. Download this book for free at:
http://pressbooks.oer.hawaii.edu/humannutrition/

This Open Educational Resource textbook was also inspired by:

Kansas State University Human Nutrition | goo.gl/vOAnR // CC BY 3.0

Edited and Reviewed by

Cecille Farnum — Ryerson University, Copyeditor

Changqi Leu — San Diego State University, Chapter reviewer

Billy Meinke — University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Project manager

Paula Parslow — Private, Copyeditor

Trina Robertson — Saddleback College, Chapter reviewer

Allison Tepper — American University, Chapter reviewer

Front Cover Photo

Rachel Inouye / CC BY 4.0

Special Thanks to

Bill Chismar – University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Dean of Outreach College

The Children’s Healthy Living Summer Institute – University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

Open Educational Resources

This text is provided to you as an Open Educational Resource (OER) which you access online. It is designed to give you a comprehensive introduction to human nutrition at no or very nominal cost.  It contains both written and graphic text material, intra-text links to other internal material which may aid in understanding topics and concepts, intra-text links to the appendices and glossary for tables and definitions of words, and extra-text links to videos and web material that clarifies and augments topics and concepts.

 

Acknowledgements by University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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