Music appreciation
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Music appreciation

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Table of contents
Chapter Two Simple Rhythm Activities
2.1 - Activity 1: Rhythm Imitations
2.2 - Activity 2: Karaoke Percussion
2.3 - Activity 3: No Karaoke Percussion
2.4 - Other Rhythm Activities Available
Chapter Three Meter in Music
3.1 - What is Meter?
3.2 - Classifying Meters
3.3 - Recognizing Meters
Chapter Four Musical Meter Activities
4.1 - Introduction
4.2 - Listen for Meter
4.3 - Sing with Meter
4.4 - Dance with Meter
4.5 - Recognize Meter in Time Signatures
Chapter Five Tempo
5.1 - Metronome Markings
5.2 - Tempo Terms
5.3 - Gradual Tempo Changes
Chapter Six A Tempo Activity
Chapter Seven Dynamics and Accents in Music
7.1 - Dynamics
7.2 - Accents
Chapter Eight A Musical Dynamics Activity
Chapter Nine A Musical Accent Activity
Chapter Ten Timbre: The Color of Music
Chapter Eleven Timbre Activities
11.1 - Class Discussion and Demonstration of Color
11.2 - Color Activities
11.3 - Adaptations and Extensions
11.4 - Other Suggestions for Exploring Color
Chapter Twelve Melody
12.1 - Introduction
12.2 - The Shape or Contour of a Melody
12.3 - Melodic Motion
12.4 - Melodic Phrases
12.5 - Motif
12.6 - Melodies in Counterpoint
12.7 - Themes
12.8 - Suggestions for Presenting these Concepts to Children
Chapter Thirteen A Melody Activity
Chapter Fourteen The Shape of a Melody
Chapter Fifteen Theme and Motif in Music
15.1 - Motifs
15.2 - Melodic Themes and Movies
15.3 - Opera Motifs
15.4 - Composing and Improvising using Motifs
Chapter Sixteen Harmony
Chapter Seventeen Harmony with Drones
Chapter Eighteen Simple Chordal Harmony
18.1 - Introduction
18.2 - Activities
18.3 - Listening Suggestions
Chapter Nineteen Parallel Harmonies
19.1 - Introduction
19.2 - Activities
19.3 - Listening Suggestions
Chapter Twenty Independent Harmonies
20.1 - Introduction
20.2 - Activities
Chapter Twenty-one The Textures of Music
21.1 - Introduction
21.2 - Terms that Describe Texture
21.2.1 - Monophonic
21.2.2 - Homophonic
21.2.3 - Polyphonic
21.2.4 - Heterophonic
21.3 - Suggested Listening
Chapter Twenty-two A Musical Textures Activity
22.1 - Suggested Music
Chapter Twenty-three An Introduction to Counterpoint
23.1 - Introduction
23.2 - Some Useful Terms
Chapter Twenty-four Counterpoint Activities: Listening and Discussion
Chapter Twenty-five Counterpoint Activities: Singing Rounds
25.1 - Introduction
25.2 - Rounds
25.3 - Acknowledgments and Sources
Chapter Twenty-six Form in Music
26.1 - Form is the Basic Structure
26.2 - Describing Form
26.2.1 - Labelling Form With Letters
26.2.2 - Naming Forms
Chapter Twenty-seven Music Form Activities
27.1 - Introduction
27.2 - Activity 1: Verses
27.3 - Activity 2: Refrains
27.4 - Further Practice With Form
27.5 - General Discussion of Form in the Arts
Chapter Twenty-eight Orchestral Instruments
28.1 - Introduction
28.2 - The Sections of the Orchestra
28.2.1 - Strings
28.2.2 - Woodwinds
28.2.3 - Brass
28.2.4 - Percussion
Chapter Twenty-nine What Kind of Music is That?
29.1 - Western and Non-Western
29.2 - Jazz, Blues, and World Music
29.3 - Tonal, Atonal, and Modal Music
29.4 - Classical and Art Music
29.5 - Folk and Popular music
29.6 - Suggestions for Listening and Further Study
29.6.1 - Tonal, Atonal, and Modal Music
29.6.2 - Western Classical
29.6.3 - Non-Western Classical
29.6.4 - Western Folk
29.6.5 - Non-Western Folk
29.6.6 - Music that Combines Western and Non-Western Traditions
Chapter Thirty The Renassiance Period (1400-1600)
30.1 - THE RENAISSANCE (1400-1600)
30.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
30.1.2 - DYNAMICS
30.1.3 - TEXTURE
30.1.4 - TONE QUALITY
30.1.5 - RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS
30.1.6 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
Chapter Thirty-one The Baroque Period (1600-1750)
31.1 - THE BAROQUE PERIOD (1600-1750)
31.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
31.1.2 - TEXTURE
31.1.3 - TONE QUALITY
31.1.4 - COMPOSERS OF THE BAROQUE PERIOD
31.1.5 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
Chapter Thirty-two The Classic Period (1750-1820)
32.1 - THE CLASSIC PERIOD (1750-1820)
32.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
32.1.2 - TEXTURE
32.1.3 - DYNAMICS
32.1.4 - TONE QUALITY
32.1.5 - COMPOSERS OF THE CLASSIC PERIOD
32.1.6 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
Chapter Thirty-three The Romantic Period (1820-1900)
33.1 - THE ROMANTIC PERIOD (1820-1900)
33.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
33.1.2 - TEXTURE
33.1.3 - DYNAMICS
33.1.4 - COMPOSERS OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
33.1.5 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
Chapter Thirty-four The Twentieth Century And Early Twenty-First Century
34.1 - THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
34.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
34.1.2 - TEXTURE
34.1.3 - DYNAMICS
34.1.4 - TONE QUALITY
34.1.5 - SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF NEW MUSIC
34.1.6 - CHORAL COMPOSERS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
34.1.7 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
Chapter Thirty-five Attributions
Music appreciation
1st Edition
Ronda Neugebauer
© March 24, 2014 Ronda Neugebauer
Table Of Contents
  • 1. Rhythm
  • 2. Simple Rhythm Activities
    • 2.1 - Activity 1: Rhythm Imitations
    • 2.2 - Activity 2: Karaoke Percussion
    • 2.3 - Activity 3: No Karaoke Percussion
    • 2.4 - Other Rhythm Activities Available
  • 3. Meter in Music
    • 3.1 - What is Meter?
    • 3.2 - Classifying Meters
    • 3.3 - Recognizing Meters
  • 4. Musical Meter Activities
    • 4.1 - Introduction
    • 4.2 - Listen for Meter
    • 4.3 - Sing with Meter
    • 4.4 - Dance with Meter
    • 4.5 - Recognize Meter in Time Signatures
  • 5. Tempo
    • 5.1 - Metronome Markings
    • 5.2 - Tempo Terms
    • 5.3 - Gradual Tempo Changes
  • 6. A Tempo Activity
  • 7. Dynamics and Accents in Music
    • 7.1 - Dynamics
    • 7.2 - Accents
  • 8. A Musical Dynamics Activity
  • 9. A Musical Accent Activity
  • 10. Timbre: The Color of Music
  • 11. Timbre Activities
    • 11.1 - Class Discussion and Demonstration of Color
    • 11.2 - Color Activities
    • 11.3 - Adaptations and Extensions
    • 11.4 - Other Suggestions for Exploring Color
  • 12. Melody
    • 12.1 - Introduction
    • 12.2 - The Shape or Contour of a Melody
    • 12.3 - Melodic Motion
    • 12.4 - Melodic Phrases
    • 12.5 - Motif
    • 12.6 - Melodies in Counterpoint
    • 12.7 - Themes
    • 12.8 - Suggestions for Presenting these Concepts to Children
  • 13. A Melody Activity
  • 14. The Shape of a Melody
  • 15. Theme and Motif in Music
    • 15.1 - Motifs
    • 15.2 - Melodic Themes and Movies
    • 15.3 - Opera Motifs
    • 15.4 - Composing and Improvising using Motifs
  • 16. Harmony
  • 17. Harmony with Drones
  • 18. Simple Chordal Harmony
    • 18.1 - Introduction
    • 18.2 - Activities
    • 18.3 - Listening Suggestions
  • 19. Parallel Harmonies
    • 19.1 - Introduction
    • 19.2 - Activities
    • 19.3 - Listening Suggestions
  • 20. Independent Harmonies
    • 20.1 - Introduction
    • 20.2 - Activities
  • 21. The Textures of Music
    • 21.1 - Introduction
    • 21.2 - Terms that Describe Texture
      • 21.2.1 - Monophonic
      • 21.2.2 - Homophonic
      • 21.2.3 - Polyphonic
      • 21.2.4 - Heterophonic
    • 21.3 - Suggested Listening
  • 22. A Musical Textures Activity
    • 22.1 - Suggested Music
  • 23. An Introduction to Counterpoint
    • 23.1 - Introduction
    • 23.2 - Some Useful Terms
  • 24. Counterpoint Activities: Listening and Discussion
  • 25. Counterpoint Activities: Singing Rounds
    • 25.1 - Introduction
    • 25.2 - Rounds
    • 25.3 - Acknowledgments and Sources
  • 26. Form in Music
    • 26.1 - Form is the Basic Structure
    • 26.2 - Describing Form
      • 26.2.1 - Labelling Form With Letters
      • 26.2.2 - Naming Forms
  • 27. Music Form Activities
    • 27.1 - Introduction
    • 27.2 - Activity 1: Verses
    • 27.3 - Activity 2: Refrains
    • 27.4 - Further Practice With Form
    • 27.5 - General Discussion of Form in the Arts
  • 28. Orchestral Instruments
    • 28.1 - Introduction
    • 28.2 - The Sections of the Orchestra
      • 28.2.1 - Strings
      • 28.2.2 - Woodwinds
      • 28.2.3 - Brass
      • 28.2.4 - Percussion
  • 29. What Kind of Music is That?
    • 29.1 - Western and Non-Western
    • 29.2 - Jazz, Blues, and World Music
    • 29.3 - Tonal, Atonal, and Modal Music
    • 29.4 - Classical and Art Music
    • 29.5 - Folk and Popular music
    • 29.6 - Suggestions for Listening and Further Study
      • 29.6.1 - Tonal, Atonal, and Modal Music
      • 29.6.2 - Western Classical
      • 29.6.3 - Non-Western Classical
      • 29.6.4 - Western Folk
      • 29.6.5 - Non-Western Folk
      • 29.6.6 - Music that Combines Western and Non-Western Traditions
  • 30. The Renassiance Period (1400-1600)
    • 30.1 - THE RENAISSANCE (1400-1600)
      • 30.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
      • 30.1.2 - DYNAMICS
      • 30.1.3 - TEXTURE
      • 30.1.4 - TONE QUALITY
      • 30.1.5 - RENAISSANCE COMPOSERS
      • 30.1.6 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
  • 31. The Baroque Period (1600-1750)
    • 31.1 - THE BAROQUE PERIOD (1600-1750)
      • 31.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
      • 31.1.2 - TEXTURE
      • 31.1.3 - TONE QUALITY
      • 31.1.4 - COMPOSERS OF THE BAROQUE PERIOD
      • 31.1.5 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
  • 32. The Classic Period (1750-1820)
    • 32.1 - THE CLASSIC PERIOD (1750-1820)
      • 32.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
      • 32.1.2 - TEXTURE
      • 32.1.3 - DYNAMICS
      • 32.1.4 - TONE QUALITY
      • 32.1.5 - COMPOSERS OF THE CLASSIC PERIOD
      • 32.1.6 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
  • 33. The Romantic Period (1820-1900)
    • 33.1 - THE ROMANTIC PERIOD (1820-1900)
      • 33.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
      • 33.1.2 - TEXTURE
      • 33.1.3 - DYNAMICS
      • 33.1.4 - COMPOSERS OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
      • 33.1.5 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
  • 34. The Twentieth Century And Early Twenty-First Century
    • 34.1 - THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
      • 34.1.1 - RHYTHM AND TEMPO
      • 34.1.2 - TEXTURE
      • 34.1.3 - DYNAMICS
      • 34.1.4 - TONE QUALITY
      • 34.1.5 - SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF NEW MUSIC
      • 34.1.6 - CHORAL COMPOSERS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
      • 34.1.7 - SUGGESTED WORKS FOR STUDY
  • 35. Attributions
1. Rhythm

Rhythm, melodyharmonytimbre, and texture are the essential aspects of a musical performance. They are often called the basic elements of music. The main purpose of music theory is to describe various pieces of music in terms of their similarities and differences in these elements, and music is usually grouped into genres based on similarities in all or most elements. It's useful, therefore, to be familiar with the terms commonly used to describe each element. Because harmony is the most highly developed aspect of Western music, music theory tends to focus almost exclusively on melody and harmony. Music does not have to have harmony, however, and some music doesn't even have melody. So perhaps the other three elements can be considered the most basic components of music.

Music cannot happen without time. The placement of the sounds in time is the rhythm of a piece of music. Because music must be heard over a period of time, rhythm is one of the most basic elements of music. In some pieces of music, the rhythm is simply a "placement in time" that cannot be assigned a beat or meter, but most rhythm terms concern more familiar types of music with a steady beat. See Meter for more on how such music is organized, and Duration and Time Signature for more on how to read and write rhythms. See Simple Rhythm Activities for easy ways to encourage children to explore rhythm.

Rhythm Terms

  • Rhythm - The term "rhythm" has more than one meaning. It can mean the basic, repetitive pulse of the music, or a rhythmic pattern that is repeated throughout the music (as in "feel the rhythm"). It can also refer to the pattern in time of a single small group of notes (as in "play this rhythm for me").
  • Beat - Beat also has more than one meaning, but always refers to music with a steady pulse. It may refer to the pulse itself (as in "play this note on beat two of the measure"). On the beat or on the downbeat refer to the moment when the pulse is strongest. Off the beat is in between pulses, and the upbeat is exactly halfway between pulses. Beat may also refer to a specific repetitive rhythmic pattern that maintains the pulse (as in "it has a Latin beat"). Note that once a strong feeling of having a beat is established, it is not necessary for something to happen on every beat; a beat can still be "felt" even if it is not specifically heard.
  • Measure or bar - Beats are grouped into measures or bars. The first beat is usually the strongest, and in most music, most of the bars have the same number of beats. This sets up an underlying pattern in the pulse of the music: for example, strong-weak-strong-weak-strong-weak, or strong-weak-weak-strong-weak-weak. (See Meter.)
  • Rhythm Section - The rhythm section of a band is the group of instruments that usually provide the background rhythm and chords. The rhythm section almost always includes a percussionist (usually on a drum set) and a bass player (usually playing a plucked string bass of some kind). It may also include a piano and/or other keyboard players, more percussionists, and one or more guitar players or other strummed or plucked strings. Vocalists, wind instruments, and bowed strings are usually not part of the rhythm section.
  • Syncopation - Syncopation occurs when a strong note happens either on a weak beat or off the beat. See Syncopation.

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