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Principles of Social Psychology - 1st International Edition

Table of contents
Chapter One. Introducing Social Psychology
1.1 - Defining Social Psychology: History and Principles
1.2 - Affect, Behavior, and Cognition
1.3 - Conducting Research in Social Psychology
1.4 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Two. Social Cognition
2.1 - Sources of Social Knowledge
2.2 - How We Use Our Expectations
2.3 - Social Cognition and Affect
2.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Social Cognition
2.5 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Three. The Self
3.1 - The Cognitive Self: The Self-Concept
3.2 - The Feeling Self: Self-Esteem
3.3 - The Social Self: The Role of the Social Situation
3.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About the Self
3.5 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Four. Attitudes, Behavior, and Persuasion
4.1 - Exploring Attitudes
4.2 - Changing Attitudes Through Persuasion
4.3 - Changing Attitudes by Changing Behavior
4.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Attitudes, Behavior, and Persuasion
4.5 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Five. Perceiving Others
5.1 - Initial Impression Formation
5.2 - Inferring Dispositions Using Causal Attribution
5.3 - Biases in Attribution
5.4 - Individual Differences in Person Perception
5.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Person Perception
5.6 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Six. Influencing and Conforming
6.1 - The Many Varieties of Conformity
6.2 - Obedience, Power, and Leadership
6.3 - Person, Gender, and Cultural Differences in Conformity
6.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Influence
6.5 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Seven. Liking and Loving
7.1 - Initial Attraction
7.2 - Close Relationships: Liking and Loving Over the Long Term
7.3 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Liking and Loving
7.4 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Eight. Helping and Altruism
8.1 - Understanding Altruism: Self and Other Concerns
8.2 - The Role of Affect: Moods and Emotions
8.3 - How the Social Context Influences Helping
8.4 - Other Determinants of Helping
8.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Altruism
8.6 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Nine. Aggression
9.1 - Defining Aggression
9.2 - The Biological and Emotional Causes of Aggression
9.3 - The Violence Around Us: How the Social Situation Influences Aggression
9.4 - Personal and Cultural Influences on Aggression
9.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Aggression
9.6 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Ten. Working Groups: Performance and Decision Making
10.1 - Understanding Social Groups
10.2 - Group Performance
10.3 - Group Decision Making
10.4 - Improving Group Performance and Decision Making
10.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Groups
10.6 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Eleven. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
11.1 - Social Categorization and Stereotyping
11.2 - Ingroup Favoritism and Prejudice
11.3 - Reducing Discrimination
11.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
11.5 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Twelve. Competition and Cooperation in Our Social Worlds
12.1 - Conflict, Cooperation, Morality, and Fairness
12.2 - How the Social Situation Creates Conflict: The Role of Social Dilemmas
12.3 - Strategies for Producing Cooperation
12.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Cooperation and Competition
12.5 - Chapter Summary
Chapter Thirteen. About the Authors
Chapter Fourteen. Glossary
Chapter Fifteen. Versioning History
Principles of Social Psychology - 1st International Edition
1st Edition
Charles Stangor
© 2011 Charles Stangor, 2014 Dr. Rajiv Jhangiani, 2014 Dr. Hammond Tarry
Table Of Contents
  • Introduction - Principles of Social Psychology - 1st International Edition
  • Chapter One - Introducing Social Psychology
    • 1.1 - Defining Social Psychology: History and Principles
    • 1.2 - Affect, Behavior, and Cognition
    • 1.3 - Conducting Research in Social Psychology
    • 1.4 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Two - Social Cognition
    • 2.1 - Sources of Social Knowledge
    • 2.2 - How We Use Our Expectations
    • 2.3 - Social Cognition and Affect
    • 2.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Social Cognition
    • 2.5 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Three - The Self
    • 3.1 - The Cognitive Self: The Self-Concept
    • 3.2 - The Feeling Self: Self-Esteem
    • 3.3 - The Social Self: The Role of the Social Situation
    • 3.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About the Self
    • 3.5 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Four - Attitudes, Behavior, and Persuasion
    • 4.1 - Exploring Attitudes
    • 4.2 - Changing Attitudes Through Persuasion
    • 4.3 - Changing Attitudes by Changing Behavior
    • 4.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Attitudes, Behavior, and Persuasion
    • 4.5 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Five - Perceiving Others
    • 5.1 - Initial Impression Formation
    • 5.2 - Inferring Dispositions Using Causal Attribution
    • 5.3 - Biases in Attribution
    • 5.4 - Individual Differences in Person Perception
    • 5.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Person Perception
    • 5.6 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Six - Influencing and Conforming
    • 6.1 - The Many Varieties of Conformity
    • 6.2 - Obedience, Power, and Leadership
    • 6.3 - Person, Gender, and Cultural Differences in Conformity
    • 6.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Influence
    • 6.5 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Seven - Liking and Loving
    • 7.1 - Initial Attraction
    • 7.2 - Close Relationships: Liking and Loving Over the Long Term
    • 7.3 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist About Liking and Loving
    • 7.4 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Eight - Helping and Altruism
    • 8.1 - Understanding Altruism: Self and Other Concerns
    • 8.2 - The Role of Affect: Moods and Emotions
    • 8.3 - How the Social Context Influences Helping
    • 8.4 - Other Determinants of Helping
    • 8.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Altruism
    • 8.6 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Nine - Aggression
    • 9.1 - Defining Aggression
    • 9.2 - The Biological and Emotional Causes of Aggression
    • 9.3 - The Violence Around Us: How the Social Situation Influences Aggression
    • 9.4 - Personal and Cultural Influences on Aggression
    • 9.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Aggression
    • 9.6 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Ten - Working Groups: Performance and Decision Making
    • 10.1 - Understanding Social Groups
    • 10.2 - Group Performance
    • 10.3 - Group Decision Making
    • 10.4 - Improving Group Performance and Decision Making
    • 10.5 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Groups
    • 10.6 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Eleven - Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    • 11.1 - Social Categorization and Stereotyping
    • 11.2 - Ingroup Favoritism and Prejudice
    • 11.3 - Reducing Discrimination
    • 11.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
    • 11.5 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Twelve - Competition and Cooperation in Our Social Worlds
    • 12.1 - Conflict, Cooperation, Morality, and Fairness
    • 12.2 - How the Social Situation Creates Conflict: The Role of Social Dilemmas
    • 12.3 - Strategies for Producing Cooperation
    • 12.4 - Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Cooperation and Competition
    • 12.5 - Chapter Summary
  • Chapter Thirteen - About the Authors
  • Chapter Fourteen - Glossary
  • Chapter Fifteen - Versioning History
Introduction
Principles of Social Psychology - 1st International Edition

 

 

Principles of Social Psychology - 1st International Edition

 

Dr.Charles Stangor

 

 

Dr.Rajiv Jhangiani and Dr. Hammond Tarry

 

Unless otherwise noted, Principles of Social Psychology is (c) 2011 Charles Stangor. The textbook content was produced by Charles Stangor and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, except for the following additions, which are (c)2014 Dr. Rajiv Jhangiani and (c)2014 Dr. Hammond Tarry and are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  • Inclusion of new research and theoretical developments.
  • Updated the chapter opening anecdotes and real world examples to make them more relevant for contemporary students.
  • Changed examples, references, and statistics to reflect a more international context.
  • Added overviews of some concepts, theories, and key studies not included in the original edition.
  • Added a list of learning objectives at the start of each chapter.
  • Added a glossary of key terms at the end of the textbook as a quick-reference for students.

In addition, the following changes were made but retain the original Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License:

  • Merging the separate chapters on “Social Learning” and “Social Affect” to create a single “Social Cognition” chapter.

Cover Image: The Party People, as reflected by The Gherkin’s roof by James Cridland used under CC-BY license.

 

Introduction.1. Acknowledgments

From the Adapting Authors

First, we owe a great debt to the original author, Dr. Charles Stangor, for writing the textbook and making it available to all.  We both enjoyed adding to such a readable and engaging resource. We are also grateful to the entire Open Education team at BC Campus, including Mary Burgess and Clint Lalonde, but especially Amanda Coolidge, who shepherded this project from start to finish. Thanks also to our editors for spotting the formatting and referencing errors that escaped our attention, to Brad Payne for his incredible work on the Pressbooks platform that facilitated our work, and to Chris Montoya (Thompson Rivers University), Dawn-Louise McLeod (Thompson Rivers University—Open Learning), and Jennifer Walinga (Royal Roads University) for their useful and detailed reviews of the original edition.

Rajiv Jhangiani would also like to thank Surita Jhangiani (Capilano University & Justice Institute of British Columbia) for her helpful suggestions and constant support, as well as Kabir and Aahaan Jhangiani, for providing great inspiration and endless joy during the entire process.

Hammond Tarry would also like to thank his family for their love, support, and inspiration.

From the Original Author

This book is the result of many years of interacting with many students, and it would never have been written without them. So thanks, first, to my many excellent students. Also a particular thanks to Michael Boezi, Pam Hersperger, and Becky Knauer for their help and support.

I would also like to thank the following reviewers whose comprehensive feedback and suggestions for improving the material helped make this a better text:

  • Mark Agars, California State University, San Bernadino
  • Sarah Allgood, Virginia Tech University
  • Lara Ault, Tennessee State University
  • Sarah Butler, DePaul University
  • Jamonn Campbell, Shippensburg University
  • Donna Crawley, Ramapo College
  • Alexander Czopp, Western Washington University
  • Marcia Finkelstein, University of South Florida
  • Dana Greene, North Carolina Central University
  • Melissa Lea, Millsaps College
  • Dana Litt, University of Washington
  • Nick Marsing, Snow College
  • Kevin McKillop, Washington College
  • Adam Meade, North Carolina State University
  • Paul Miceli, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  • Marcie Miller, South Plains College
  • Meg Milligan, Troy University
  • Dean Morier, Mills College
  • Darren Petronella, Adelphi University
  • Lisa Poole, Northeast State Technical Community College
  • Michael Rader, Northern Arizona University
  • Diana Rice, Geneva College
  • David Simpson, Carroll University
Introduction.2. Preface

Preface from Original Author: Charles Stangor

When I first started teaching social psychology, I had trouble figuring out how the various topics in this expansive field fit together. I felt like I was presenting a laundry list of ideas, research studies, and phenomena, rather than an integrated set of principles and knowledge. Of course, what was difficult for me was harder still for my students. How could they be expected to understand and remember all of the many topics that we social psychologists study? And how could they tell what was most important? Something was needed to structure and integrate their learning.

It took me some time, but eventually, I realized that the missing piece in my lectures was a consistent focus on the basic principles of social psychology. Once I started thinking and talking about principles, then it all fell into place. I knew that when I got to my lecture on altruism, most of my students already knew what I was about to tell them. They understood that, although there were always some tweaks to keep things interesting, altruism was going to be understood using the same ideas that conformity and person perception had been in earlier lectures—in terms of the underlying fundamentals—they were truly thinking like social psychologists!

I wrote this book to help students organize their thinking about social psychology at a conceptual level. Five or ten years from now, I do not expect my students to remember the details of a study published in 2011, or even to remember most of the definitions in this book. I do hope, however, that they will remember some basic ideas, for it is these principles that will allow them to critically analyze new situations and really put their knowledge to use.

My text is therefore based on a critical thinking approach—its aim is to get students thinking actively and conceptually—with more of a focus on the forest than on the trees. Although there are right and wrong answers, the answers are not the only thing. What is perhaps even more important is how we get to those answers—the thinking process itself. My efforts are successful when my students have that “aha” moment, in which they find new ideas fitting snugly into the basic concepts of social psychology.

To help students better grasp the big picture of social psychology and to provide you with a theme that you can use to organize your lectures, my text has a consistent pedagogy across the chapters. I organize my presentation around two underlying principles that are essential to social psychology:

  1. Person and situation (the classic treatment)
  2. The ABCs of social psychology (affect, behavior, and cognition)

I also frame much of my discussion around the two human motivations of self-concern and other-concern. I use these fundamental motivations to frame discussions on a variety of dimensions including altruism, aggression, prejudice, gender differences, and cultural differences. You can incorporate these dimensions into your teaching as you see fit.

My years of teaching have convinced me that these dimensions are fundamental, that they are extremely heuristic, and that they are what I hope my students will learn and remember. I think that you may find that this organization represents a more explicit representation of what you’re already doing in your lectures. Although my pedagogy is consistent, it is not constraining. You will use these dimensions more in some lectures than in others, and you will find them more useful for some topics than others. But they will always work for you when you are ready for them. Use them to reinforce your presentation as you see fit.

Perhaps most important, a focus on these dimensions helps us bridge the gap between the textbook, the real-life experiences of our students, and our class presentations. We can’t cover every phenomenon in our lectures—we naturally let the textbook fill in the details. The goal of my book is to allow you to rest assured that the text has provided your students with the foundations—the fundamental language of social psychology—from which you can build as you see fit. And when you turn to ask students to apply their learning to real life, you can know that they will be doing this as social psychologists do—using a basic underlying framework.

Organization

The text moves systematically from lower to higher levels of analysis—a method that I have found makes sense to students. On the other hand, the chapter order should not constrain you—choose a different order if you wish. Chapter 1 “Introducing Social Psychology” presents an introduction to social psychology and the research methods in social psychology, Chapter 2 “Social Cognition” presents the fundamental principles of social cognition. The remainder of the text is organized around three levels of analysis, moving systematically from the individual level (Chapter 3 “The Self” through Chapter 5 “Perceiving Others”), to the level of social interaction (Chapter 6 “Influencing and Conforming” through Chapter 9 “Aggression”), to the group and cultural level (Chapter 10 “Working Groups: Performance and Decision Making” through Chapter 12 “Competition and Cooperation in Our Social Worlds”).

Rather than relying on “modules” or “appendices” of applied materials, my text integrates applied concepts into the text itself. This approach is consistent with my underlying belief that if students learn to think like social psychologists they will easily and naturally apply that knowledge to any and all applications. The following applications are woven throughout the text:

Pedagogy

Principles of Social Psychology contains a number of pedagogical features designed to help students develop an active, integrative understanding of the many topics of social psychology and to think like social psychologists.

Research Foci

Research is of course the heart of social psychology, and the research foci provide detailed information about a study or research program. I’ve chosen a mix of classic and contemporary research, with a focus on both what’s interesting and what’s pedagogical. The findings are part of the running text—simply highlighted with a heading and light shading.

Social Psychology in the Public Interest

Social psychological findings interest students in large part because they relate so directly to everyday experience. The Social Psychology in the Public Interest Feature reinforces these links. Topics include Does High Self-Esteem Cause Happiness or Other Positive Outcomes? (Chapter 3 “Self”), Detecting Deception (Chapter 5 “Perceiving Others”), Terrorism as Instrumental Aggression (Chapter 9 “Aggression”), and Stereotype Threat in Schools (Chapter 11 “Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination”). The goal here is to include these applied topics within the relevant conceptual discussions to provide students with a richer understanding within the context of the presentation.

Thinking Like a Social Psychologist

Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes how the material presented in the chapter can help the student think about contemporary issues using social psychological principles. This section is designed to work with the chapter summary to allow a better integration of fundamental concepts.

Introduction.3. About the Book

Principles of Social Psychology-1st International Edition was adapted by Rajiv Jhangiani and Hammond Tarry from Charles Stagnor’s textbook Principles of Social Psychology. For information about what was changed in this adaptation, refer to the Copyright statement at the bottom of the home page. The adaptation is a part of the B.C. Open Textbook project.

The B.C. Open Textbook Project began in 2012 with the goal of making post-secondary education in British Columbia more accessible by reducing student cost through the use of openly licensed textbooks. The BC Open Textbook Project is administered by BCcampus and funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education.

Open textbooks are open educational resources (OER); they are instructional resources created and shared in ways so that more people have access to them. This is a different model than traditionally copyrighted materials. OER are defined as teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others (Hewlett Foundation). Our open textbooks are openly licensed using a Creative Commons license, and are offered in various e-book formats free of charge, or as printed books that are available at cost.  For more information about this project, please contact opentext@bccampus.ca. If you are an instructor who is using this book for a course, please let us know.

Adapting Authors’ Notes:

Although the original edition of this textbook was favourably reviewed by BC faculty, the reviewers noted several areas and issues that needed to be addressed before it was ready for adoption. These included incorporating new research and theoretical developments, updating the chapter opening anecdotes and real world examples to make them more relevant for contemporary students, changing examples, references, and statistics to reflect a more international context, and merging the separate chapters on “Social Learning” and “Social Affect” to create a single “Social Cognition” chapter. Over the course of our adaptation we attempted to address all of these issues (with the exception of American spelling, which was retained in order to focus on more substantive issues), while making other changes and additions we thought necessary, such as writing overviews of some concepts, theories, and key studies not included in the original edition. Finally, we added a list of learning objectives at the start of each chapter and a glossary of key terms at the end of the textbook as a quick-reference for students.

We hope that our work enables more instructors to adopt this open textbook for their Social Psychology or related courses and we further invite you to build upon our work by modifying this textbook to suit your course and pedagogical goals.

Rajiv Jhangiani and Hammond Tarry

August 2014

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